Anatomy and physiology 1 | Anatomy homework help


Proxima Centauri


The closest star to our own, approximately 4.2 light-years away or 25 trillion miles, is the red-dwarf, Proxima Centauri. This low-mass star is about 12% the mass of our Sun, however, a planet has been observed rotating around this red-dwarf star called Proxima c. This exoplanet is approximately 1.3 times the size of earth and appears to have a rocky terrain. Because of its rotation, Proxima c would have approximately 22 Earth days between sunrises and the surface temperature would be approximately -40C. Evidence of both atmospheric and liquid water on the surface has been observed. Because of the closeness of this planet to the Proxima Centauri, the planet is flooded with 400x more radiation than Earth and a solar wind pressure 2000x that experienced on Earth.[i] Due to these factors, the inhabitants of this planet would most likely live underground and would only venture above ground for resources. They would be bipedal humanoids, resembling humans in their anatomy and physiology. However, considering the differences between Proxima c and Earth, there will be adaptations that would ensure their survival on Proxima c driven by the process of natural selection. 


Using this information, you should describe and justify one adaptation to the nervous system that this organism would have to inhabit Proxima c. This analysis should include the following: 

· Description of the physiology of the human nervous system (refer to your textbook).

· An explanation of how the environment of Proxima c may affect the functioning of the human nervous system and special senses.

· Propose an adaptation to the human nervous system the Proxima c humanoid would have to compensate for the environment.

  • The adaptation can be       based on changes in a human organ to make it work more efficiently on       Proxima c or can be an organ that is not found in the human nervous       system.
  • The proposal should include      justification as to why that particular adaption would benefit the      humanoid more than any other adaptation to the nervous system.
    • Justifications should be       based on known scientific principles and research.
  • Describe how this change or new organ      would enable the humanoid to function better on this planet than on Earth.
  • Use reliable sources and identify the      relevant information used for your analysis and justification.


1. Length should be a minimum of two pages 

2. Analysis should be typed, using 1” margins and double-spacing.

3. Font size should be 12 and should be one of the following: Times New Roman, Georgia, Arial, or Calibri

4. You must use a minimum of three reputable sources in addition to your textbook (all sources including your textbook must be cited). Reputable sources include peer reviewed scientific journal articles, accredited websites, or books. Google, Wikipedia, etc. are not acceptable sources. Remember to cite all sources and cite your textbook. Citations should be in the APA or MLA format, including parenthetical (in-text) citations. Visit the Purdue Owl Writing Lab (opens new window) for instructions on proper formatting.


The paper MUST be submitted via the submission link in Blackboard and must be in word document format. It will not be accepted if turned in any other way or if it is not in the correct format. 

The submission link will check your paper for plagiarism using safeassign software. Any paper showing more than 25% plagiarism will be an automatic zero (this means even if you cite your sources, your writing must be in your own words).


Plagiarism is using another person’s ideas and/or writings without acknowledging that you are doing so and is a serious offense. All students should take all precautions to ensure that no plagiarism, intentional or unintentional, is present in their work.

Plagiarism includes (but is not limited to) 

  • quoting a source word-for-word without enclosing the      material in quotation marks (even if you cite the source).
  • summarizing an article by copying from the abstract or      critical summary (even if you cite the article).
  • paraphrasing closely another’s writing (e.g. modifying      sentences slightly, but expressing the same ideas with copied phrases)      even if you cite the source.
  • using another author’s points about a topic without      acknowledging that you are doing so, and/or reviewing exactly the same      studies in the same way (e.g., using a criticism or essay or textbook      treatment of a topic as the basic outline for your paper and reviewing      only the studies that the author used and making the same criticisms that      the author does). It is fine to get a general idea for a topic from a text      or other source, but you must then develop and cover the topic in your own      way.

Students are expected 

  • to use their own ideas and their own words in any paper      they write.
  • to write about material they have read, but express      their own understanding and their own comments on it.
  • to use occasional quotations but to identify them as      quotations.
  • to avoid close paraphrasing which is not their own      writing. Using more than five (5) consecutive words from the original      source without using quotation marks reflects close      paraphrasing (i.e. to take an author’s writing and to change a few      words here and there). This is not acceptable even if the student      cites a reference.


The paper will be graded on content, flow, spelling, and grammar. Excess errors will result in point deductions. See grading rubric below. 


[i] Information is based on the discovery and analysis of Proxima Centauri b.  Anglada-Escudé G, Amado PJ, Barnes J, Berdiñas ZM, Butler RP, Coleman GA, de la Cueva I, Dreizler S, Endl M, Giesers B, Jeffers SV, Jenkins JS, Jones HR, Kiraga M, Kürster M, López-González MJ, Marvin CJ, Morales N, Morin J, Nelson RP, Ortiz JL, Ofir A, Paardekooper S, Reiners A, Rodríguez E, Rodriguez-López C, Sarmiento LF, Strachan JP, Tsapras Y, Tuomi M, Zechmeister M (25 August 2016). “A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri” (PDF). Nature. 536 (7617): 437–440. .

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