Phi 208 week 5 final exam

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1. Late one night over coffee, Ali and James get into a meandering conversation about the meaning and nature of love, whether anyone can ever truly love anyone else. What kind of judgments would the issues raised in this conversation be BEST described as? 

2. Victor assumes that each individual is primarily concerned with his or her own benefit. Victor’s assumption is a form of __________. 

3. Nafi, a cultural anthropologist, believes that at least some moral truths are independent of the values and beliefs of any particular culture or individual. What is the term for Nafi’s belief? 

4. With what does the major moral theory known as utilitarianism primarily concern itself? 

5. Paulette is a philosopher who is trying to evaluate the strength of a major moral theory. As such, which of the following questions is Paulette LEAST likely to ask about the theory? 

6. The author suggests that a statement like, “Who am I to judge what is right or wrong for someone else?” MOST often implies that 

7. How does the author propose that Glaukon’s shepherd and Bill Murray’s Groundhog Day character are alike? 

8. According to the textbook, how do each of us live out answers to Socrates’s essential question? 

9. To which category do arguments regarding the morality of topics like abortion and eating animals belong? 

10. With what does the major moral theory known as virtue ethics primarily concern itself? 

11. According to Glaukon in “The Ring of the Gyges,” people are naturally 

12. Which of the following ideas do Glaukon and Nietzsche share?

13. Subjectivism differs from relativism in that it is __________ rather than __________. 

14. According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of 

15. Suppose a society believes that throwing an innocent boy into a volcano will keep the volcano from erupting—and therefore save hundreds of lives. What variety of utilitarian thought does this action represent? 

16. “Respect for persons” is the basis of a common objection to utilitarianism. The argument states that a utilitarian does not adequately respect the dignity and rights of the individual. Which of the following stories from this text BEST reflects that objection? 

17. Utilitarianism claims that morally right actions, policies, or laws are those whose consequences have the greatest positive value and least negative value __________. 

18. What is the BEST meaning of the term “the irreducible plurality of values”? 

19. What would not be a utilitarian argument on same-sex couples being allowed to marry? 

20. Allen is a critic of utilitarianism. Of the following sentences, which is LEAST likely to factor into his critique? 

21. If someone were to question the value of scientific research on utilitarian grounds, which of the following would be the likeliest reason? 

22. What does the utilitarian mean by the term “wrong actions”? 

23. Why does Mill call utilitarianism a “more profoundly religious [doctrine] than any other”? 

24. All of the following can make it difficult to calculate an action’s utility EXCEPT 

25. Kathleen is a girls’ soccer coach who lies now and then to her young team in order to keep up their spirits and guarantee they have fun, even if they are not the best players in the league. Kathleen’s lying could be an example of utilitarian __________. 

26. Which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism rather than act utilitarianism? 

27. What is the most accurate term for the rules and regulations expressed in the United Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights? 

28. The duty to always treat humanity as an end-in-itself and never as a mere means is a(n) __________. 

29. A deontological moral theory regards the morality of actions as 

30. According to Kant, respect for a person should be 

31. In 2012, sports fans were saddened and outraged to learn that cycling superstar Lance Armstrong had used illegal performance-enhancing drugs for years. A deontologist would say that his actions were wrong because they 

32. According to deontological ethics, duties are 

33. Which of these statements is one way to express Kant’s Categorical Imperative? 

34. How would a deontologist respond to the fact that human rights advocates often peacefully protest or even break civil laws that they think are unjust? 

35. According to Immanuel Kant, which of these is the LEAST important to moral action? 

36. Professor Donovan is a Kantian philosopher. Therefore, she argues that the true value of “a good will” lies in 

37. Which of the following is a Kantian approach to helping a family in need? 

38. For Kant, the respect we owe people has to do primarily with their __________. 

39. The author suggests that, according to virtue ethics, the primary reason people think they ought to take certain actions and avoid others is more fundamental than merely respecting rules or producing the best consequences. Rather, that reason is 

40. In The Nicomachean Ethics, how does Aristotle begin his inquiry into ethics? 

41. Drew is a person who always tries to make practically wise choices. What would NOT characterize these choices according to an Aristotelian? 

42. How do utilitarian and deontological views of “good character” compare with Aristotle’s view? 

43. What did Aristotle suggest about feelings such as spite, envy and shamelessness? 

44. One of the fundamental questions asked by virtue ethicists is 

45. Aristotle is one of the most important figures in Western history because he accomplished all of the following EXCEPT: 

46. Lawrence, a philosophy student, doubts the very notion that there are such things as good character traits. His view may be similar to the view known as __________. 

47. Dianne lets her three children know they are loved and supported. She provides them with resources, models positive behavior, and within limits, lets them discover things for themselves. Dianne’s choices fulfill her social role of parent, which is tied to the Aristotelian notion of __________. 

48. The text compares speed swimmer Michael Phelps’s diet to that of a Catholic monk during Lent. What point is the author illustrating through this comparison? 

49. The personal qualities that enable an individual to live a good life and flourish as a human being are known as __________. 

50. Which of the following is probably the LEAST necessary character trait needed to be a good clinical nurse?   

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